Pesticides: Problems & Solutions
According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Pesticides are not ‘safe.’ They are produced specifically because they are toxic to something.” Americans have used 300 million pounds of pesticides per year, in and around their own homes and gardens as of 1989, representing about a pound per person of deadly toxins each year added to the average living environment(Bashin BJ. Bug Bomb Fallout. Harrowsmith, May/June 1989. p. 43-51). The cost of these products is about $1 billion dollars a year, but the health costs are far greater still. In 1988, total pesticide use in the U.S. was about 2.7 billion pounds (out of 4 billion pounds worldwide), which is over 10 pounds per year for every man, woman, and child, added mostly to our food crops, with 20% used on non-agricultural lands including golf courses, lawns, and gardens. The majority of pesticides are used on corn, cotton, wheat, and soy crops(Dashefsky HS. Environmental Literacy. (New York: Random House,1993) p. 192). The amounts used are 10 times what they were just 40 years ago, yet the number of crops lost to insects has nearly doubled from 7% to 13% over that same period of time (Pesticide Fact Sheet, Los Angeles: Pesticide Watch). About 66% of all pesticides used are herbicides, 23% are insecticides, and 11% are fungicides.
Pesticides are a significant and avoidable source of toxicity today. Even the exposure of a parent to household and garden pesticides is a significant risk factor for childhood leukemia. The use of indoor pesticides increases leukemia risk by 380%, while outdoor use of herbicides or insecticides increases the risk by 650%. When it is the mother who uses these products, risk increases by 900% (Peters J. National Cancer Institute study at University of Southern California, 1987). About 21 million Americans use these lawn and garden chemicals each year, applying them to about 40% of America’s lawns, so even if your family doesn’t use chemicals, chances are one or more of your next-door neighbors does. A study in Illinois showed that the average house uses 8.1 pounds of pesticides per acre, compared to 2.1 pounds per acre used by soybean farmers. Similar findings came out in a study in California comparing pesticide concentrations in San Francisco and the Central Valley area. As of 1990, 117 different pesticides still in use were identified as potential causes of chronic health problems. 27 of these show strong evidence of carcinogenicity, while only 6 require specific warnings on the label about this health hazard. The other 90 pesticides cause problems including birth defects and sterility. Amazingly, most pesticides on the market have not undergone a complete battery of tests to find out about acute toxicity effects on human health. In 1972, Congress gave the EPA four years to register all existing pesticides. 14 years later, they had completed the process on only 1 out of 600 active ingredients in pesticides. The process is not expected to be completed until well into the 21st century! In addition, many “inert” ingredients are used in pesticide formulations, which simply means the manufacturer is not claiming that the ingredient acts as a pesticide. Even DDT has been used as an “inert” ingredient since its ban in this country as a “pesticide.” The EPA acknowledges that there is a complete lack of health-effect data on some 800 “inert” ingredients used in pesticide formulations, and at least 160 “inert” ingredients are known toxic chemicals, including solvents like chloroform, toluene, and xylene, as well as hazardous waste (Helm A. EPA Waste Policy Threatens Health. Asheville, NC: Greenline). The New York State Attorney General has issued a report on this problem(The Secret Hazards of Pesticides. New York State Attorney General’s office, June 1991).
Pesticides are now everywhere, including at the South Pole. Often, less than 1% of the pesticides used in agriculture actually reach the targetted pests. The other 99% add to the contamination of our land, air, and water. Even the 1% that reaches its target stays in the environment, often concentrating through the food chain to poison songbirds, humans, and other life. Federal regulations do require testing of water for pesticides, but only for six low-use pesticides, while hundreds of heavily applied pesticides are not monitored at all. Only eight of 40 pesticides targeted as threats to drinking water by the Department of Health Services have complete health-effects data, and only two have complete data on the fate of the pesticide in our environment. This is one of the reasons that it is critical to drink, cook and bathe only in filtered water. Soaking, peeling, and steaming commercial fruits and vegetables lightly also helps to reduce pesticide residues in food.
According to the General Accounting Office, the 10 most frequently used household pesticides are (Bashin BJ. Bug Bomb Fallout. Harrowsmith, May/June 1989. p. 45):
- 2,4-D is the most popular, with nearly 40 million pounds a year being used in over 1500 different herbicide products in this country. It is known to cause lymphomas and various cancers according to studies in the U.S., as well as Italy, Denmark, and Sweden.
- Diazinon is used for lawn care, as well as ant and roach sprays, and is highly toxic to birds and fish. None of the studies performed for its registration are considered adequate(California Department of Food and Agriculture, based on reviewing all available health data). According to Dr. Ward Stone, a wildlife pathologist with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, “millions of birds are dying each year because of diazinon and other lawn chemicals.”
- Carbaryl (e.g. in flea and tick powders and garden products) kills honey bees and causes birth defects in dogs. No studies of this compound are considered adequate.
- Methoxychlor (e.g. in insect sprays, cat flea powder, and fruit tree sprays) does not have toxicity data up to current standards.
- Chlordane is a known carcinogen and is no longer being manufactured, but existing supplies are still in use.
- Chlorpyrifos, used against termites and fleas, is extremely toxic to animals, and human exposure may exceed recommended limits due to use in both agriculture and homes. The EPA’s acceptable toxicity levels only consider food sources, but Consumers Union thinks exposure in many households is well above these levels when all sources are considered.
- Malathion is widely used in home products for roaches, as well as in gardens for orchards and roses. More detailed information on this pesticide is given below.
- Maneb is a fungicide used in garden products, despite a complete lack of data on home exposure, and incomplete data in 6 out of 10 studies on the chemical.
- Simazine is an herbicide used in pools and ponds to kill algae. Not enough is known about the effects of swimming in water treated with this compound.
- Captan is a fungicide used on tomatoes, vegetables, and other garden crops, roses, fruit trees, and even in shower curtains, paints, institutional bedding, and food packaging. It is a known carcinogen in animals.
The EPA does not even know if two-thirds of the top 50 household pesticide ingredients may cause cancer or not. Dichlorvos (DDVP) which has been used in at least 12 million homes in this country, is now classified as a probable human carcinogen. It is emitted as a toxic vapor for 3 months or more from no-pest strips and flea collars. Naled, used in flea collars as well as garden and orchard products, is also metabolized directly into DDVP. DCPA, used for crabgrass and weed control, is often contaminated with dioxin, which is one of the most potent carcinogens known. Pentachlorophenol causes blind spots, corneal damage, and numbness, as well as problems with the autonomic nervous system. Chlordecone (KEPONE) causes tremors and nervousness. Paraquat, with over 1,000 people at risk of toxicity, causes tremors and mental disturbances. Dieldrin and aldrin are organochlorines that cause convulsions, loss of coordination, nystagmus, and blurred and double vision. Over 10,000 people are at risk of this toxicity. Lindane (in Kwell), another organochlorine like DDT, aldrin, endrin, and heptachlor, is used by over 3 million children each year in the U.S. to treat lice. It is known to cause cancer and stillbirths in animals, and it also causes symptoms ranging from headaches to convulsions. The other organochlorines have been banned because they accumulate in the body and cause tumors. Less toxic alternatives to Kwell include Triple-X, A-200 Pyrinate, and Rid, all of which contain pyrethrins, which are natural pesticides found in chrysanthemums. DEET is the most popular ingredient in insect repellents, having been used by about 38% of Americans. When it is applied to clothing or skin, it is absorbed into the body. Documented symptoms of toxicity, summarized in Lancet, include encephalopathy, slurred speech, staggering gait, agitation, tremors, convulsions, and death. Methyl bromide, used in fumigation can cause nerve damage in the extremities, as well as ataxia, dizziness, nystagmus, and double vision. Over 100,000 people are at risk of this toxicity. Triorthocresylphosphate also causes nerve damage in the hands and feet. In all, well over a million Americans are estimated to be at risk of pesticide toxicity with damage to the brain, nerves, eyes, lungs, liver, kidney, and endocrine glands (Gard ZR, et al. Why is irritability, anger, and viciousness increasing? Explore for the Professional. 6(4):39-45, 1995).
The two major classes of pesticides are organophosphates and carbamates. The organophosphates were first developed in the 1930s in Germany as modified nerve gases, and so they are extremely well absorbed through the skin, eyes, mucus membranes, and lungs, as well as the digestive tract. They are responsible for 80% of the 3,000 hospitalizations each year that are known to be related to pesticide toxicity. Carbamates typically cause long-term toxicity which is harder to track, since they are converted in plants or in the stomach of animals or humans to N-nitroso derivatives, 80% of which have been shown to be mutagenic and carcinogenic according to the AMA (Bashin BJ. Bug Bomb Fallout. Harrowsmith, May/June 1989. p. 47).
Central nervous system toxicity of organophosphates like Malathion is, of course, prominent in the symptomology, with symptoms appearing in the following sequence (Health risk assessment of the aerial application of malathion-bait. (California Department of Health Services, 1990 draft) Sec. 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 Human Studies):
- subtle behavioral changes (these can appear and remain long before and after other symptoms)
- emotional sensitivity
- excessive dreaming
Other common neurotoxicity symptoms (Hartmann. Neuropsychological Toxicology. p. 24. 1988) include impairment intellectual abilities such as:
- abstract reasoning
- academic skills
- cognitive efficiency and flexibility (dementia)
Impairment of motor coordination due to neurotoxicity includes effects on:
- fine motor speed
- fine motor coordination
- gross motor coordination
- gross motor strength
Sensory and visuospatial effects include:
- visual disturbances
- difficulty drawing or constructing
- auditory disturbances
- numbness and tingling
- touch sensation disturbances
Memory and learning can be affected:
- short term memory
- learning (encoding)
- long term memory
Personality effects of neurotoxicity can include:
- organic brain syndrome
- organic affective disorder
Other typical symptoms of mild acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning are (Pesticide Fact Sheet, Data Center Files. p. 21, July/Aug 1979; Apt and Gaffney. 1976; Ames, et al. Health Symptoms & Occupational Exposure to Flea Control Products among California Pet Handlers. 1989; Otten N. Rain of terror. Health Freedom News, May 1991. p. 12-15):
- aggravated assault
- asthma attacks
- behavioral changes
- biochemical changes (e.g. lipid metabolism)
- blurred vision
- burning eyes
- cardiovascular dysregulation
- chest tightness
- constricted pupils
- contact urticaria
- hair loss
- inhibition of serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by 20 to 50%
- memory disturbance
- mental confusion
- muscle twitching
- nasal congestion
- neuro-psychiatric symptoms
- overactive mental state
- respiratory dysregulation
- runny nose
- skin rashes
- sleep disturbance
- sore throats
- stomach cramps
- tearing eyes
- temperature dysregulation
- upper respiratory congestion
- walking difficulty
In addition, animal and human studies show the following health effects:
- atrophy (testicular)
- cancer (thyroid, adrenal medulla)
- cysts (thymus, pituitary)
- genetic damage (both animal and human)
- kidney toxicity
- liver toxicity
- lung lesions
- pancreas problems (dilation of the pancreatic duct)
- spontaneous abortion
- tumors (mammary)
- ulcers (stomach)
- uterine problems (pyometra)
Most of the animal studies are done on rats, which have the ability to detoxify malathion in the blood as well as the liver. Humans do not have the necessary enzyme, Carboxylesterase-B (CEB), in the blood to protect the brain and other critical organs from malathion entering via the skin, eyes, or lungs (Rabovsky J. toxicologist, California Department of Health Services). One eye doctor has seen children go permanently blind due to optic nerve damage from malathion toxicity (Sadun A. professor of ophthalmology). The EPA’s Senior Science Advisor reported in 1984 that “malathion in the human diet, exceeds the Maximum Permissible Intake (MPI) set by the EPA by more than five-fold.” This means there are up to four excess cancer deaths for every 1,000 people from this one chemical, and then only from food exposure, not counting exposure due to aerial spraying. Another factor not counted in government estimates of health effects is the ‘inert’ ingredients, some of which are far more toxic than the ‘active ingredient. Malathion contains 16 so-called inert ingredients, including the highly toxic iso-malathion, malaoxon, phosphorothioate, and diethyl fumarate. When the government monitors airborne malaoxon (which is 68 times more toxic than malathion itself) continued to rise for 2 days after spraying, they stopped measuring. The EPA has also failed to even establish either an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) or an Acceptable Concentration Limit (ACL) for this chemical, let alone synergistic effects with other chemicals. Were they simply trying to eliminate the problem by looking the other way?
Pesticides such as DDT, chlordane, and heptachlor, which have been removed from the market, are still in our environment, as well as in our homes where they have been used to kill termites. Fortunately, termites can now be killed effectively with either heat or cold treatments for whole structures, as well as local applications of non-toxic boric acid. Chlordane, as an example, has been found in soil 20 years after the last spraying (Autoantibodies and chemical exposure. Santa Ana, California: Antibody Assay Laboratories, 1990). These chemicals are fat-soluble, so they are absorbed easily through the lungs or the skin, as well as the intestinal tract. Unfortunately, when they are broken down by the liver, they form epoxides which are even more toxic than the original compound. Symptoms often include fatigue, memory loss, cognitive changes, and ‘flu-like illness from which one simply fails to fully recover. Additional symptoms of chemical sensitivity may include headache, eye irritation, dry throat, tightness in the chest, increased sensitivity to smells, myalgia, and persistent low-grade fever. Such individuals typically show increased autoantibodies to smooth muscle (75%), parietal cells (70%), brush border cells (50%), myelin sheath (at least 45%), and sometimes antinuclear antibodies (ANA, 35%) or even mitochondria (5%). At least one of these autoimmune reactions is found in 95% of such patients (Broughton A, et al. Immunological effects of exposure to pesticides. Comments on Toxicology 4:59-71, 1990). Pesticides have been shown to activate macrophage cells involved in the autoimmune response (The “Chemical Sensitive” patient and the primary care physician. Santa Ana, California: Antibody Assay Laboratories; Mcconnachie P and Zahalsky A. Immune alterations following exposure to chlordane/heptachlor. Arch Environ Health, in press, 1991). Over 50,000 cases of acute pesticide toxicity are reported each year (Dashefsky HS. Environmental Literacy. (New York: Random House,1993) p. 192). Organochlorine pesticides like DDT have a half-life in human fat tissue of 20 to 50 years, (F.A.S.E. Foundation for Advancement in Science and Education. FASE Reports, and Research Bulletin. Los Angeles, California)resulting in chronic toxicity, as well as acute symptoms during detoxification, exercise, and weight loss programs. A recent study of women with breast cancer found much higher levels of DDT in their fat tissue compared to controls (Falck F, et al. Cleaning House. Alternatives, Home Mt. Publishing, ISSN#0893-5025, 4(12): July 1992). Since every single American ever tested has residues of DDT and other pesticides stored in their fat tissue, we all need to maintain life-long protection, detoxification, and health-rebuilding program.
Pesticides in our Water & Food
According to the National Academy of Science, the average American eats 40 mg of pesticides each year in their food and keeps 100 mg stored long-term in fat tissue (Rona, Z. Body toxins and detoxification programs. Ontario, Canada; Gard Z and Brown E. Literature Review & Comparison Studies of Sauna/Hyperthermia in Detoxification, Part I, II and III, Townsend Letter for Doctors, #107,108 & 111, June, July & October 1992). Dozens of pesticides have also been found in groundwater supplies in most states around the country. For example DBCP, a known carcinogen, was already in 2,449 wells just in the state of California by the year 1984, and groundwater aquifers often take hundreds of years to regenerate. Pesticides in our food are another part of the problem. A study in 1988 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) detected pesticides in over 33% of all grains and grain products, 19% of dairy products and eggs (over 38% of dairy products are tainted with antibiotics) (Rutgers University study published in the Wall Street Journal, reported in The HealthCare Letter (Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania: Standard Homeopathic), 1(2):1-2, 1990), over 48% of fish, seafood and meats, over 45% of fruits, and over 38% of vegetables. The EPA recognizes 55 cancer-causing pesticides that leave residues in our food. Routine monitoring of pesticides in our food supply by the FDA is unable to detect about 60% of the pesticides that are most likely to be in our food. It is estimated in a report by the National Resources Defence Council that about 6,000 American children in preschool today may get cancer solely due to their exposure to 8 specific pesticides found commonly in fruits and vegetables. Add this to the hundreds of other pesticides, and about 2,500 other chemicals added to our food supply in processing(Schmid RF. Native Nutrition, Eating According to Ancestral Wisdom. (Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 1994) 170). What are the additive and synergistic effects of all these toxins on our children? And how do poisons in our air, food and water interact with chemical medicines in our body? While government agencies like FDA and EPA state officially that “we have not developed ways to test any of that,” researchers like Dr. Swartwout at the Remission Foundation are working with decades-old European technology that measures the body’s electromagnetic responses to such stress patterns.
One day, after mowing the lawn, a successful engineer began feeling dizzy, nauseous, and headachey, with a runny nose and tightness in his chest. The symptoms simply never cleared up. After six years, 20 doctors, and even more diagnostic tests from spinal taps to liver biopsies, the diagnosis was an interaction between Tagamet (which he was prescribed for ulcers) and organophosphate pesticides used on his lawn. The prescription drug blocked the liver’s ability to detoxify the pesticide, increasing its neurotoxicity (resulting eventually in seizures) and immunosuppression (resulting in recurrent viral growths). This one drug alone, Tagamet, is taken by over 15 million Americans (Allen FE. Mowing the lawn turned into a nightmare. San Francisco Chronicle, Nov. 20, 1991). Some of the specific drugs that are known to increase the risk of pesticide toxicity include:
- beta blockers (for heart conditions)
- cycrimine (for Parkinsonism)
- glaucoma medications
- myasthenia gravis medications
- phospholine iodide (echothiophate)
- procaine (used in general anesthesia)
- propranolol (Inderol)
- succinylcholine (used in general anesthesia)
In addition, specific health conditions or characteristics that directly increase susceptibility to pesticide effects include (Are you at risk? Burbank, California: Action Now; Health risk assessment of the aerial application of malathion-bait. Feb 1991):
- autoimmune conditions (e.g. lupus)
- blood disorders (e.g. anemia)
- chemical sensitivity
- youth (age 13 or under)
- elderly (age 74 and over)
- heart disease
- immune dysfunction
- kidney disease
- liver disease
- lung disease (chronic)
- neurological disease
- pesticide exposure (up to 4% of the general population has had previous significant exposure) (Murphy, et al. 1983)
- pregnant and lactating women and their offspring
- prescription medications (about 10% of all drugs dispensed, see list above)
- skin conditions (increase dermal absorption)
Killing Pests with Microwater, Diatomaceous Earth & Other Non-Toxic Solutions
Superoxidized Microwater is being used successfully in Japan to replace most of the chemical pesticides in agriculture and on golf courses. This is providing healthier food, recreational and working environments while saving businesses money on expensive chemicals. Natural, non-toxic pesticides and biological pest control methods are also being developed. The alfalfa weevil has been controlled in the U.S. by importing a natural enemy from another area. Sales of such biological pesticides, including bacteria, viruses, protozoans, and fungi that combat certain insects, have increased nearly 500% in the past five years (Dashefsky HS. Environmental Literacy. (New York: Random House,1993) p. 29). Natural enemies of pests can also be found in the local environment in many cases, and their populations can be fostered by simply eliminating the use of synthetic pesticides that kill the beneficial species, or enhancing its population through environmental actions, or even by propagation and release. The release of large numbers of predators, such as parasitic wasps, can augment other methods when needed, to suppress the development of pest larvae (Dashefsky HS. Environmental Literacy. (New York: Random House,1993) p. 28). Products such as Permaguard with diatomaceous earth can safely kill insects, including fleas, roaches, and ants without harming humans, animals, or plants. Boric acid powder, along with general cleaning and sealing of cracks and holes is effective against roaches. Roach bombs alone represent over half of the $1 billion dollar-a-year home pesticide market, yet roaches develop up to 300 times increased resistance to the chemicals used. Because of this ability of pests to develop resistance to synthetic pesticides, it is not uncommon for effective dosages to increase 100 fold within a few years of use. And while roaches are benign from a public health point-of-view, with no reports in the scientific literature of roaches transmitting human disease, the same cannot be said for pesticides. A mixture of honey and boric acid often helps with ants. Ants can also be stopped by wiping away their scent trail with bleach and then caulk or putty their entrance holes. You may also try putting coffee grounds, red pepper, or spray mint around outside the areas where ants enter your house (Rogers SA. The E.I. Syndrome, An Rx for Environmental Illness. (Syracuse, NY: Prestige Publishing, 1986) 320-1). Annual weeds can be controlled with well-timed fertilization to give grass a jump over the competition, and crabgrass can be shaded out by raising the mowing height to 2.5 to 3 inches. Letting grass grow to 3.5 or 4 inches before cutting also strengthens the roots against drought. Rose bushes can be maintained with a combination of insecticidal soap and lime sulfur. Flies are attracted to the color yellow (e.g. Rustoleum #7745) and can be trapped by painting Tanglefoot on a yellow surface. Another flytrap uses small openings at the bottom in shade, with a glass dome on top, since flies will fly up toward the light after feeding on bait such as food scraps placed in the trap.
The University of California’s Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources has a database of about 600 alternative solutions to pest situations with various crops, covering 70% of the situations in which pesticides are used today. Remember that 90% of our great-grandparents were farmers, and none of them used synthetic pesticides. Virtually every crop grown today is also grown successfully on a commercial scale without the use of synthetic pesticides. The National Park Service began to apply Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques to 90 million acres of both urban and rural facilities in 1980, and by 1983 it had reduced pesticide use by 70%, with the remaining 30% consisting mostly of the “least toxic” products such as insecticidal soaps. IPM techniques can also include interbreeding sterile insects into a population, using insect hormones to disrupt breeding, using pest-resistant crops, applying organic farming principles to strengthen plants, as well as using biological and natural insecticides (Dashefsky HS. Environmental Literacy. (New York: Random House,1993) p. 134). Hundreds of botanical insecticides have been used in China and other countries for centuries, with herbs like chinaberry and neem. Watch for increasing availability of such products in this country, such as Permaguard products which contain the natural pesticide pyrethrin from chrysanthemums.
Unfortunately, according to a 1989 National Academy of Sciences report, farmers who want to use non-toxic methods get little help from federally funded commodity income and price support programs, or from extension research programs. Our government’s policies actually discourage farming practices that would reduce pesticide use, and provide an unfair economic advantage to chemical-industry-based farming, through taxpayer dollars. Regulations allow cancer-causing chemicals to be used on food even for purely cosmetic purposes, as well as in situations where effective alternatives are available. Environmental effects, such as air pollution are also inadequately regulated. Air concentrations of Telone II, a cancer-causing soil fumigant, have been measured at one school in a rural area at levels that would cause an estimated 900 excess cancer deaths per 100,000 exposed people. That represents nearly one in every 100 children in that school.
Reversing Pesticide Toxicity & Allergy
Besides toxicity effects, millions of Americans are allergic to pesticides, but there is help and hope for both allergy and toxicity (Jaffe R. Reston, VA: Seramune Research Laboratory). Fat-soluble toxins, like pesticides, can be excreted through the sweat oils, which can be stimulated at temperatures of 105 to 110 degrees, versus higher temperature saunas which stimulate more watery sweat secretions. Also, certain dietary factors can help protect us from the damaging effects of pesticides. These include cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage. Herbs include chaparral (not available commercially in the U.S. at the time of writing), celandine, juniper, Oregon grape root, and garlic. Nutritional substances that have been used to help the body detoxify pesticides include:
- ascorbate (in One Step powder)
- B12 (in One Step)
- calcium (in One Step)
- carotenoids (in One Step)
- chlorogenic acid
- ellagic acid (in Vitamin P)
- essential fatty acids (in One Step)
- folate (in One Step)
- gallic acid
- glutathione (in One Step)
- GTF chromium (in One Step)
- histidine (in One Step)
- magnesium (in One Step)
- manganese (in One Step)
- molybdenum (in One Step)
- NAC (in several remedies including Lymph Support and Lymph Flow)
- niacin (in One Step as niacinamide)
- potassium (in One Step)
- riboflavin (in One Step)
- thiamine (in One Step)
- vitamin K (in One Step)
- zinc (in One Step)
While a few of these are very specialized nutrients, most of them can be found in optimum dosages in a good comprehensive multi-vitamin-mineral supplement.
Homeopathic remedies that are frequently used to stimulate detoxification of pesticides and other neurotoxins include:
- Allium sativum
- Arsenicum album
- Benzoicum acidum
- Berberis vulgaris
- Calcarea carbonica
- Carbolicum acidum
- Chelidonium majus
- Citricum acidum
- Histaminum muriaticum
- Juniperus communis gemmae
- Lycopodium clavatum
- Mercurius solubilis
- Natrum bicarbonicum
- Sodium hydrochlorite
- Solidago virgaurea
- Succus betula gemmae
The above remedies are available in a complex homeopathic remedy called Exchem (produced by Apex Energetics).