Jul 11, 2021


The Organic Sulfur Supplement

Sulfur, in its organic forms, is one of the most important elements of life and vision. It functions as a critical part of glutathione in Glutathione peroxidase, on the front line of the body’s antioxidant system. It is a component of many other enzymes, including the enzyme that pumps excess fluid out of the crystalline lens, maintaining the clarity of the lens. This is like the difference between a clear (pure) quartz crystal and a milky quartz crystal, with the only difference being the presence of a tiny amount of water or other impurities to disrupt the crystal lattice structure. Sulfur is crucial in detoxification processes in the liver and also for the elimination of Mercury, a common trigger of cataracts. This is because mercury binds to sulfur present in the proteins of the lens. Because the lens is the densest protein in the entire body, mercury resides there longer after exposure than in any other tissue. Sulfur, along with vitamin C, is also an integral part of all connective tissues, and can thus affect the structural integrity and healing capacity of every part of the eye.

Several forms of organic sulfur are extremely beneficial for supplementation. One very beneficial form of organic sulfur is N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) which is the preferred form to supplement cysteine, the sulfur-bearing amino acid needed in the body to make glutathione (a tripeptide made from 3 amino acids). Glutathione has been linked to lens health since the early 1900s, and NAC can dramatically boost the body’s levels. Intravenous injection of glutathione itself has improved lens clarity in 30 percent of the study subjects. We recommend a daily dose of 50 mg of pre-formed glutathione and at least 500-1000 mg of NAC per day. The other amino acids that are used to make glutathione, L-glutamine, and L-glycine, can each be supplemented at levels of 200 mg or more per day, as well.

Another form of organic sulfur is Methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM). This pure crystalline powder can be added to water or other drinks at a dose of 1/2 tsp per 100 pounds of body weight twice a day. MSM is nature’s way of completing the sulfur cycle, as it comes from the ocean and is deposited in rainwater on land. Plants concentrate it over 100 times from groundwater, and then animals get it from the plants. However, because it is rapidly lost in cooking, processing, and storage, much of our food supply today is radically depleted in this form of sulfur. Being a water-soluble substance any amount that is not used in the body immediately is quickly washed out, so it must be supplied on a regular basis in the diet.

MSM is also called dimethyl sulfone and is a naturally occurring organic Sulfur nutrient and dietary derivative of DMSO which the body needs to enhance cell restoration and its ability to resist allergies and parasites. It is exceptionally well-tolerated, hypoallergenic, and odor-free.

DMSO is a “folk remedy” which has been around for over 20 years and has been widely used as an effective treatment for reduce arthritis pain and improve skin softness. After extensive testing on both animals and humans, it was awarded Patent rights (# 4,616,039) in the seventies.


MSM is a natural form of organic sulfur found in the fluid and tissues of all living organisms. It is present in a variety of foods, including most fresh raw fruit and vegetables, milk, meat, seafood, and some grains. However, MSM is easily lost during moderate food processing. Cooking, drying, smoking pickling, and long-term storage can deplete the MSM content of food. It is unlikely that sufficient MSM is ingested into the system to contribute to the body's nutritional sulfur requirement. If freshly picked or killed food high in MSM were eaten immediately without undue cooking, our bodies would get the MSM it needs daily as it is not stored in the body. Because it is not stored, it needs to be replenished daily. It is impossible to overdose with this substance, as what is not needed by the body is secreted through the skin in an odorless form. The safety level of MSM is similar to that of water. No toxic effects were found in human volunteers taking up to 1 gram per kilogram of body weight for 30 days. Another study at the Oregon Health Sciences University showed no toxic effects even after 6 months. Over 12,000 patients have been treated with MSM at Oregon Health Sciences University. No allergic reactions or serious toxicity symptoms have ever been reported.

How it works

MSM is an important binder of soft tissues in the body – the thread which gives

strength and texture to the fabric. It is also needed to build enzymes and immunoglobins. According to the US Patent, too low a concentration of MSM in the body results in adverse physical and psychological stress, tissue and organ malfunction, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to diseases. MSM levels start to fall as we age. MSM has been proven to work better in conjunction with Vitamin C.

Research has shown that, when available to it at sufficient levels, MSM appears

to coat all the mucus membranes of the body, creating a shield through which:

Air-borne allergy-causing contaminants such as household dust (mites), pollens, etc. are prevented from entering the tissue of the lungs and nasal passages, thus reducing the effects of hayfever and asthma. Industrial contaminants such as exhaust gasses, solvents, etc. are also hindered.

Parasites, such as Cryptosporidium, giardia, salmonella, even hookworms are snagged before entering the stomach and intestines. This coating also provides a hostile living environment for these unwanted low-lives!

Who will benefit?

All of us! It is estimated that 80% of the American population plays unknowing

host to parasites. (Yes! It's no longer a Third World problem anymore! Outbreaks of salmonella and water-borne parasitic infestations are commonplace

in cities big and small!)

Allergies and asthma affect a huge and growing proportion of the population

notwithstanding the improvement in air quality. Drug stores are lined with a magic allergy “cures” which can do no more than alleviate the symptoms, and often have side effects as bad as the allergy itself.

Because of the tissue binding properties, skin is rendered softer, collagen

increased, injuries heal quicker and the mucus membranes are allowed to strengthen, as their bombardment by irritants is reduced.

MSM Uses

MSM is an important part of the amino acid chain. Radioisotope studies using S35 have shown that the sulfur atom in MSM is used by the body to manufacture the essential sulfur-bearing amino acids cystine and methionine. Without the presence of the proper amount of MSM in our body, other amino acids will continue to build up in the glands but fail to produce complete enzymes. Consequentially, we may be prone to unnecessary illness.

As reported in The Journal of the New York Academy of Sciences. The Department of Surgery, Oregon Health Sciences University reports: The following abnormal conditions seen in the clinic have responded to oral MSM generally administered at dosage levels of 250-270 mg/day:

  1. Response to allergy: Oral MSM moderates diverse allergic responses to pollen and foods. Anti-allergy medication and desensitization methods may be sharply reduced.
  2. Control of constipation: Chronic constipation is a very common problem in America. In one clinic, over 50 subjects presenting with chronic constipation gained prompt and continuing relief by supplementing the diet with 100 to 500 mg of MSM per day.
  3. We have seen some individuals with severely restricted lung function. Limited objective and strong subjective evidence suggest that MSM is a useful dietary supplement to reduce lung dysfunction.
  4. Hyperacidity is relieved, allowing many to eliminate the use of antacids and/or histamine receptor antagonists (anti-histamines).
  5. MSM is extremely helpful in Mercury detoxification, as Mercury has a special affinity to bind to sulfur.
  6. Snoring. MSM is actually patented as an effective treatment for snoring. A significant reduction in snoring was achieved in just one to four days by 80% of patients studied. Treatment consisted of a 16% solution of MSM administered to each nostril 15 minutes before sleep. When saline was substituted for MSM in a group of 8 patients without their knowledge, 7 out of 8 resumed their loud snoring pattern within 24 hours, and again experienced relief on the restoration of the MSM therapy.
  7. Animal studies show MSM to have a protective effect against Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) both before and after the onset of the disease. Mice fed 3% MSM in their water from early in life showed less liver damage and lower death rates. While 30% of the control group died in 7 months, all of those given MSM were still alive. When MSM was given to animals already suffering from advanced lupus, most (62%) survived an additional 9 months, while 86% of those without MSM died.
  8. Oral MSM supplementation is effective against the onset of breast cancer, according to animal research done at The Ohio State University (TOSU) College of Medicine. Rats fed MSM for a period of just 8 days prior to exposure to a chemical carcinogen developed their first tumors 100 days later than controls (equivalent to 10 human years). Also, the tumors first became cancerous 130 days later than controls (13 years equivalent), showing that even brief supplementation prior to toxin exposure can greatly slow the resulting degenerative process that results.
  9. TOSU Medical College also studied colon cancer in animals. Supplementation with 1% MSM in drinking water, beginning a week before exposure to a carcinogen, again greatly delayed the formation of tumors.
  10. In an animal model of Rheumatoid Arthritis, researchers at Oregon Health Sciences University, a 3% solution of MSM given as drinking water provided complete protection against degeneration of articular cartilage. 50% of animals in the control group without MSM suffered from focal degenerative lesions.
  11. Bodybuilders–try taking 1tsp. before working out and 1 tsp. afterward. Muscles will not be sore due to MSM’s ability to remove lactic acid build-up. MSM is given to racehorses after races to prevent sore muscles–why not us?

MSM Chemistry

The chemical formula for MSM is (CH3)2SO2. MSM is found in all fresh foods: fruits, vegetables, meats, and dairy products. MSM is highly volatile so we lose most of this absolutely important mineral by heating, drying, and processing our food.

Water, salt, and sulfur are the three major components of your body. Unless your diet is composed primarily of raw foods, it is unlikely that you are receiving enough MSM to maintain optimum health.

Organic sulfur forms the flexible bond between proteins. When the old cell dies and the new cell forms, the new cell attaches but becomes rigid if there is not enough MSM in your body. Your body requires a constant nutritional sulfur supply to build the healthy, flexible cells needed for proper organ and glandular functioning and for beautiful, soft skin.

Vitamins and amino acids work with MSM to create good, healthy cells. Vitamin C is especially essential. When you create a new molecule of flesh, you destroy Vitamin C. When your body repairs itself, it needs Vitamin C.

MSM is synergistic with Vitamin C. We recommend that you take equal amounts of MSM and Vitamin C to see immediate results. Recommended forms are esterified vitamin C, the best absorbed and retained form of vitamin C, mineral ascorbates (alkaline), and Ascorbyl Palmitate, which is a fat-soluble form of vitamin C.

Some benefits of using MSM are reduction of pain by reducing muscle inflammation and flushing out lactic acid; reduces wrinkles, cracking skin, scar tissue, hardening of arteries, and emphysema; controls headaches, cramps, and hot flashes; increases blood circulation; controls allergic responses to pollen and foods; controls stomach acidity and reduces ulcers; controls hypersensitivity to drugs; alleviates constipation and parasite problems; facilitates carbohydrate metabolism; controls Candida; reduces arthritis symptoms; relieves asthma; makes hair and nails grow faster and stronger, and controls Alzheimer’s disease.

MSM Lotion

MSM lotion is made of all-natural products including MSM, Vitamins A, D & E, Grapefruit seed extract, lichen moss, Almonds, Apricots, Aloe Vera, Calendula, and Melaleuca (tea tree oil). Almonds, Apricots, and Aloe Vera soften and moisten your skin without a greasy film. Calendula and melaleuca kill fungus around fingernails, as well as athletes' foot and ringworm. MSM lotion eliminates the inflammation of carpal tunnel, dissolves scar tissue and stretch marks, surface blemishes, brown spots, skin tumors, and warts; prevents blistering, and almost immediately takes the sting out of burns.

MSM lotion concentrates natural sulfur in places where the body needs special attention. It is ideal for skincare maintenance and brings softness and elasticity to the skin.

MSM Eye Drops

Eye drops soften the membranes, allowing fluids to pass through the optical tissues. When optical membranes become permeable, nutrition is able to penetrate through the optical tissues and provide the nutrients needed for healing.

When the membranes become tough like leather, the fluids are trapped, and particles start to build up. If the build-up continues, it is as if you are looking through frosted glass, a condition known as cataracts. This can cause a pressure drop across the membrane. The inside pressure of the eye causes the eye to inflate, a condition known as glaucoma. When MSM eye drops are applied, the membrane becomes permeable and reverses these problems.

The eye should also be flexible so the muscles can change the contour and focus. When the eye membranes and muscles become tough, the eye is unable to focus properly and vision becomes blurred.

MSM softens tough, leathery tissue, equalizes pressures, repairs damaged membranes, clears up red spots and broken blood vessels, and helps remove floaters and other eye particles.

The Body’s 3rd Largest Ingredient

MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane) is not a medicine, a drug, or a food additive. It is a food and comes as a pure white sulfur powder. It comes from the ocean and is water-soluble. Sulfonyl sulfur is found in plants, meats, dairy products, and vegetation. Broccoli shows high concentrations of MSM in its natural raw state. During normal preparation of food, we lose most of MSM because it goes with the moisture, such as washing, drying, steaming. It is the 3rd largest ingredient found in your body. You’re made up of water, salt, and MSM. The vitamin-people missed it, there was so little in their samples-they never thought it was important. They found a lot of sulfa; we put in wounds to burn and cauterize, sulfites; they put in corn flakes so the bugs won’t eat them, and sulfates; they put it in sausages. We may be allergic to sulfa’s, sulfides, and sulfates which are the sulfur family. Sulfonyl is also in the sulfur family, but it is nutritional, and you can’t be allergic to it, you need it, because the body can’t function without organic sulfur.

One leading atmospheric chemist calculates that MSM and its cousins, DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) and DMS (dimethylsulfide) provide 85% of all sulfur in living systems. The sulfur is recycled through the ocean, where microscopic plankton release dimethyl sulfonium salts. These quickly change into volatile DMS (Dimethylsulfide), which evaporates and rises to the upper atmosphere. There, ultraviolet light and ozone convert it into DMSO and MSM. In contrast to DMS, both DMSO & MSM are water-soluble, so they are cycled back to the earth’s surface as a component of raindrops. Once in the groundwater, plants quickly soak up these valuable sulfur-bearing molecules, concentrating them up to 100 times over the levels in the soil. Plants then use this organic sulfur, incorporating it into their own structures and enzymes. After passing through the food chain, MSM that escapes the biological domain once again returns in runoff to the ocean to begin another cycle in the grand scheme.

The body uses MSM to create new good healthy cells. Vitamins and amino acids work with MSM during this process. Without proper levels of MSM, our bodies are unable to build good healthy cells and this leads to illness. To maintain good health, we need good flexible, healthy cells. Illness is the result and consequence of a body's deficiency of materials needed to repair damaged tissue and organs. We need to supplement our diets with MSM to provide the body with the proper building materials to maintain a healthy body.

Our bodies produce new cells 24 hours a day. If our body doesn’t receive the proper nutrition and the building materials it needs, it will produce bad, dysfunctional cells, deficient in the basic ingredients that constitute a healthy cell. If we want a good flexible cell, capable of maintaining good health, we need to supplement our diets with MSM, to enable the body to heal itself.

If you’ve ever had a canker sore it’s because you lack something in your diet, possibly vitamin A or C. It tries to heal itself, but with deficient materials, it draws from other resources and usually takes what it needs from the inside skin of our mouths. It takes what it needs and leaves a sore on the inside of the mouth. If we give the body what it needs to heal itself, it will repair the sore in the mouth and the skin will become healthy again.

You cannot overdose with MSM. The body will use what it needs, and after twelve hours, will flush any access amounts out of the body. If you want to maintain good healthy cells 24 hours a day, it is suggested you take MSM in the morning and evening. The MSM will flush what the body doesn’t retain semi-permanently every twelve hours, and because it is a free radical and foreign protein scavenger. MSM cleans the bloodstream, so allergies to food and pollens go away in about 3 or 4 days.

The only side effects are stronger fingernails, toenails, and your hair grows faster because you have more sulfur in your fingernails and hair than any other cells of your body.

The body knows what it needs better than any doctor. It will use MSM where ever it is needed in the system. What if your body is experiencing more than one problem? Give the body extra MSM so it can provide more nutrition and heal itself.

Dust Mites are a major cause of respiratory allergies!

Allergic diseases are a major health problem in the United States affecting more than 35 million Americans. A recent survey found that 24% of all allergic individuals between the ages of 6 and 19 skin tested positive for dust mites. These individuals may suffer diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. The relationship between house dust mites and allergy symptoms were not clear until R. Voorhorst and coworkers (1964) demonstrated that dust mites were the major cause of asthma, and there was a good correlation between the allergenicity of house dust and dust mites levels.

Biology of Dust Mites

Dust mites are microscopic organisms, ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 mm in length. Therefore, they are not easily seen with the naked eye. Unlike insects, dust mites have eight legs without distinct segments. The head, thorax, and abdomen are all fused into one body. The two most commonly found house dust mites in the United States are Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Trouessart (also known as the European dust mite) and D. farinae Hughes (also known as the American dust mite).

The genus name Dermatophagoides was derived from “skin-eating”; derma meaning “skin” and phago, “to eat”. The primary food source of these mites appears to be skin scales and/or fungi growing on skin scales. An average American sheds about 12 grams of skin scales each day. For these reasons, house dust mites are frequently found in “high use areas”; such as carpets, mattresses, and overstuffed furniture in domestic housing, and in carpets, upholstered chairs, and fabric panels in office buildings. These fleecy surfaces are good reservoirs and breeding grounds for dust mites.

Dust Mite Allergens

Dust mite allergens are proteins that are present in particles greater than 10 micrometers (µm) in diameter. These particles are associated with the bodies and feces of dust mites. Particles of this size can easily settle on carpets and soft furnishings in homes and offices. They become airborne only when domestic activity occurs, such as bed-making and vacuuming with a conventional upright vacuum cleaner. When inhaled, these particles usually deposit on the mucosa of the nose and oropharynx and can trigger upper respiratory allergic symptoms.

Office Buildings

Many office buildings contain carpets, upholstered chairs, and fabric panels which collect dust and provide a good breeding ground for dust mites. These buildings often have central heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems that directly and indirectly affect the house dust mite population and its allergens. For example, HVAC systems maintain building temperatures between 63 F and 78 F, which are suitable for dust-mite growth. A reduction in ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor humidity in some cases, which enhances dust mite growth. Air-conditioning in office buildings reduces humidity, which discourages dust mite growth. Air ventilation redistributes the settled dust reservoirs that may contain dust mite allergens. A recent study found that moderate to high levels of dust mite allergens were detected from carpets and upholstered chairs in office buildings.


Back in 1970, I was in an auto accident. The seat belt would not release and the engine caught on fire, trapping me in the car and cooking me for twenty minutes. I was charcoal from my armpit down to below my knee. For seventeen years, I cried at night trying to sleep because the scarred tissue and adhesions hurt so much. The pain would not allow me to walk more than one block a day without hurting real bad.

Eleven years ago a veterinarian introduced me to the nutritional sulfur (MSM). Three days later I could out-march my troops; I’m a 60-year-old sergeant in the Oregon State Defense Force. Later I got reports that the apricot lotion with MSM made scar tissue go away, so I rubbed it into my burn area. That entire portion of my body was flat, purple in color, and was covered by 65 feet of grafting marks. By using the lotion, I was able to concentrate the lotion in the areas that weren’t getting enough. The collagen grew in along with new blood vessels and I turned round in shape, pink in color, and now I am down from 65 feet of grafting marks to about 3 inches, and those have nearly faded out.

…B.R., Portland

Just a couple of minutes after taking MSM for the first time, my son Ryan ran back to me to say,” Mom, my shoulder pain is gone.” I had been massaging him daily because his right shoulder had been knotted and overdeveloped from bowling. It’s now soft, flexible, and pain-free.

…N.M., Los Angeles

I had carpal tunnel in my wrists. I heard that the Apricot Lotion with MSM possibly could cure it. By rubbing the lotion right onto my wrists, it gave me the fastest results. In two weeks my carpal tunnel was gone and I didn’t have to have surgery. The MSM saved me from a lot of pain and trouble.

…R. Bell, St. Petersburg, Florida


My name is Lisa and I have had problems with allergies. Whenever pollen is in the air, I will sneeze and wheeze uncontrollably. I started taking the MSM twice daily and in a few days, my allergies were under control. I still take the MSM and my allergies just don’t seem to bother me anymore. Here’s how it works: An allergic reaction is simply your body’s reaction to something foreign in your system. These foreign proteins and free radicals invade your body and cause reactions and problems. Your body responds with a sneeze, wheeze, swollen, puffy eyes, etc. When you take MSM, your cells become more permeable, enabling your body to quickly wash out any foreign particles in your system. Every twelve hours your body is designed to flush each cell of any unwanted debris. When your diet is deficient, the cell walls become hard and stiff and this hinders fluid flow through the cell walls. MSM softens the cell walls, allowing foreign proteins and free radicals to be washed out of your system. If enough MSM is taken, all of the foreign particles can be flushed from your system and your allergies will no longer occur.

“Alzheimer’s Disease”

My name is George Weir and I live in Portland, Oregon. My wife is 72 years old and for the last 6 years, I could not communicate with her. She would get lost going from room to room and would forget why she was going there. I cooked, washed, bathed, and put her to bed every day for 6 years. I gave her 7 MSM twice a day for two weeks. I had her soak in a tub with warm water and 3/4 cup of Clorox for 20 minutes twice a week. It leeched the aluminum out of her system. In two weeks, she was up cleaning the house, communicating clearly, and going shopping. We are now living again thanks to MSM – It really works! Here’s how it works: The brain is made up of billions of nerve cells, intricately connected with each other like electrons in an electrical circuit. When you think – you send electrical impulses throughout your brain. Alzheimer’s disease is a condition where the brain is coated with aluminum, causing it to short circuit and sends brain impulses to the wrong synapse creating confusion. MSM opens the membrane that contains the aluminum, and allows the unwanted deposits to be flushed into the bloodstream. The hot bath with Clorox makes the body sweat and releases aluminum. Then the Clorox leeches it right off your body.


Here’s how it works: MSM helps the glands maintain a normal level of production. The normal level of enzymes, acids, and hormones allows the body to go in and out of the cycle smoothly eliminating the cramps, headaches, and nausea that come with the monthly cycle.

“Muscle Soreness and Lactic Acid”

Here’s how it works: The MSM disallows the crystallization and build-up of lactic acid. The MSM flushes the lactic acid out, along with all the other bad toxins in your system. By taking large amounts of MSM, more toxins that cause soreness are flushed out of your system.


Here’s how it works: The cells in the body have become rigid and non-permeable. There is too much insulin carrying blood sugars to your cells. The blood sugars do not get used because the cell walls are not permeable and the cells do not absorb the blood sugar. There is more insulin than blood sugars in the bloodstream, so the body believes it needs more sugars and it does. You then have low blood sugars and have a low or bad mood swing. By taking MSM regularly your cells become permeable. The blood sugars are now being absorbed by the cells and the body becomes healthier. After a few months on MSM, the pancreas should be producing insulin at a normal rate.

“20 Minute Hangover”

Here’s how it works: When you drink alcohol it gets into your cells and is trapped disallowing oxygen to get in. The cells die of oxygen starvation, causing you to feel ill. MSM makes the cell walls permeable so that the alcohol can be flushed out, along with other toxins, and oxygen can get in. Your body will begin to feel better and the hangover will be gone in a very short time (approximately 20 minutes).

“Chronic Headaches”

My name is Dr. JoAnn Cain and I live in Santa Monica, California. Once a week I either had a headache or was continuously building up to or recovering from a headache. I started taking MSM twice daily and have done so for the past six months. I have not had a headache since I started.

Here’s how it works: MSM helps to make the cell walls more permeable which increases circulation. By increasing circulation, there is less build-up of pressure and in effect less pain. Taking the MSM regularly will help maintain good circulation and low pressure.

MSM for Pets!

MSM helps animals too! Animals who do not eat fresh foods crave organic sulfur. Rub the lotion on dogs that are losing their hair and licking and bleeding from skin problems. Sensitivity to fleas is a natural sulfur deficiency. Flea lotion also helps kill ear mites. The Flea Flea products are excellent for the control of fleas on your pets and in your home and are available in soap, shampoo, and spray form. The kennel spray can be used to kill fleas, flea eggs, and larvae in your carpets. Spray it around your house and on plants to kill aphids, spiders, ants, bugs, and cockroaches.

Horses cough blood out of their noses when they race because they breathe so hard their lungs rupture. With MSM and Vitamin C, they can breathe freely with stronger lungs and increased oxygen intake, and their lungs do not rupture.

MSM Bibliography

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Ruzicka L, et al. Helv chim acte, 23:550, 1940.

Pfiffner JJ and North HG. J Biol Chem, 131:731, 1940.

Williams KIH, et al. Proc Soc Exp Biol & Med, 122:865, 1966.

Pearson TW, et al. Agric Food Chem, 29:1089, 1981.

Williams KIH, et al. Arch Biochem Biophys, 113:251, 1966.

Jacob SW and Hershler R. Ann NY Acad Sci, 411:XIII, 1983.

Richmond VL. J Nutrition, 116:No 6, June 1986.

Deichman WB and Gerarde HW, eds. Toxicology of Drugs & Chemicals, 4th Edition, Academic Press, 1969.

Jacobs S. What is MSM? The Longevity Connection, Summer 1997.

U.S. Patent 5,569,970 (October 29, 1996).

Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 20th Edition. Bennett JC and Plum F, eds. WB Saunders Co. 1996.

McCabe D, et al. Arch Surg. 121:1455, 1986.

O’Dwyer PJ, et al. Cancer 62:944, 1988.

Morton JI and Moore RD. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 69th Annual Meeting, April 21-26, 1985, 692, 1985.